In October 1931 capital works AMO switched to the production of new, for the modern age model truck AMO-3. Soon, the factory designers have proposed to extend the base of its chassis, in order to start the production of buses. The new machine received the name AMO-4. Passenger cars at the company manufactured the body shop, which in prewar years was headed by A. A. Evseev. The body he was trained in France where he was sent by the father before the revolution, the owner of a small crew factory.
Predecessor – AMO-4 sample in 1932
Under his leadership at the enterprise since 1926, it produced bodies for buses and later for the Soviet trolleybuses. They were produced at that time traditional technology: a wooden body trimmed with steel sheet roof inside covered with leatherette. This process resisted mechanization, was very time-consuming, required a large number of manual operations. But where he managed to unite a team of experienced workers who magmi to do every year 200-300 bodies pretty high quality. His work was appreciated and in may 1933 the body shop head Zisa was one of the first in the country awarded орlеном Lenin. At the end of 1933, the AMO-3 has been modernized, and he was given the index ZIS-5. The bus was also improved and became known as the ZIS-8. Like its predecessor, Amos-4, it had a 21 seat and in the aisle, according to the calculations of designers, could fit 8 standing passengers.
Developed a body of ZIS-8 designer N. And. France and artist I. F. Herman. They used a chassis which later became the legendary ZIS-5 with extended 610 mm base. It had a propeller shaft with an additional bearing, fuel tank 110 l, hung to the left of the frame, the radiator is larger capacity and 12-volt electrical system. The rear door was made double, front single. The front was operated by the driver, the cabin which was separated from the passenger compartment glazed partition. The driver was also provided for the door on the left side of the body. Each bus in those years was served by two people: the driver and the conductor. The latter, hung with rollers ticket strips, is constantly “circulating” among the passengers in the cabin.
The Chassis Of The ZiS-8
Pegs were pretty high. But it should be noted, and a large ground clearance of the machine (260 mm), which allows the bus to easily place virtually any streets, even with broken tracks. Harsh without shock absorbers the springs are the same as the truck ZIS-5, were driving on cobblestones unpleasant. The ZIS-8 was Nickel-plated front and rear bumpers. Above the windshield was placed a lighted marker: in the centre of the room, and the edges are colored route lights. In the back wall was an emergency door.
In addition to the main city modification, there was a version “Lux” with a different layout of the cabin, the leather upholstery of the seats and one front door. These machines were used for official and tourist purposes. For the southern regions of the country were provided a variety of ZIS-8 with a folding cloth top.
At the Moscow automobile plant-production model ZIS-8 lasted three years. There were released only 547 cars. But the same buses had to make other enterprises Zavod Aremkuz in Moscow, car repair factories and body shops in Leningrad, Tula, Kharkov, and Rostov-on-don, Irkutsk, etc. They just exactly repeated design of ZIS-8. But autorepair factory ATUL (the motor transportation enterprise of Leningrad) found a solution of its own body with rounded corners, slanting windshield and Windows slightly oval. From 1934 to 1937 he collected from 20 to 100 machines annually. And the ZIS factory from 1938 switched to production of another model – ZIS-16. Then with the advent of the bus ZIS-16 with the Moscow routes were completely removed imported Maxine Leyland.
Interesting is the fact. As the car ZIS-5 and its modification of the ZIS-5V was still available in Moscow and Miass even in the late 40-ies, some auto repair businesses, for example in Tula, did the body type ZIS-8 until 1950.
In the early 30-ies of the development of public transport do not keep up with the rapid growth of cities. The bus ZIS-8 was jammed Packed every night. Any foreign bus a long time would fail from the big overloads, and even when driving on cobbled streets. However, the chassis was a large margin of safety. The bus ZIS-8 successfully endured all the hardships.
The bus ZIS-8 played an important role in the development of urban passenger transport.